Sunday, March 21, 2010

How to update Ubuntu using the Terminal or Update Manager [Ubuntu 9.10 Karmic Koala]

3 Rabiul Akhir 1431H

Update: 19 Syawal 1433H / 6 Sep 2012M, Kh.

For Ubuntu 12.04 Precise Pangolin, go here:
How to update Ubuntu using the Terminal or Update Manager [Ubuntu 12.04 Precise Pangolin]

Ubuntu has to be updated frequently especially for security reasons. There are two methods of updating

Using Terminal

1. To run the Terminal, from the panel, click Applications > Accessories > Terminal. Refer Pic 1.

Pic 1 - Refer Step 1. Run the Terminal.

2. On the Terminal, type in as follow:
sudo aptitude update
Then press "Enter". See Pic 2.

Pic 2 - Refer Step 2. The Terminal.

3. Type in your password. As you type, the cursor won't move, also no letters appears; it's like you're typing but nothing is responding. No panic. All is functioning. Just type in your password, then press "Enter".

Let your laptop/PC retrieve lists of updates. This may take awhile.

Pic 3 - Refer Step 3. Password.

At the end of the list is the current status of your update as seen in Pic 4.

Pic 4 - Refer Step 3. Status of your updates.

4. Type in as follow:
sudo aptitude safe-upgrade
Then press "Enter". See Pic 5.

Pic 5 - Refer Step 4.

5. Type in your password. Then press "Enter". See Pic 6.

Pic 6 - Refer Step 5. Password, again.

6. You will be asked whether or not you want to continue the update. To continue, type "Y" then press "Enter". See Pic 7.

Let the update proceed. This may take time, depending on your connection speed.

Pic 7 -Refer Step 6. Continue?

7. The update is complete when you see "0 updates". Terminal can be closed.

Pic 8 - Refer Step 7. Update is completed.

Using Update Manager

1. To run the Update Manager, from the panel, click System > Administration > Update Manager. See Pic 9.

Pic 9 - Refer Step 1. Run the Update Manager.

2. Allow the Manager a few seconds to start-up and download list of changes. Then click "Install Updates".

Pic 10 - Refer Step 2. The Update Manager.

3. Depending on how you setup Ubuntu during installation, you might need to enter your password to continue the process, similar to Pic 11. Fill-in your password then click "OK".

Pic 11 - Refer Step 3. Password.

4. Let the Manager download the necessary files.

Pic 12 - Refer Step 4. Downloading the update list.

5. Let the update proceed. This may take time, depending on your connection speed. Once the download is done like in Pic 13, the Manager can be closed.

Pic 13 - Refer Step 5. Update complete.

Friday, March 19, 2010

Step-by-step Ubuntu 9.10 32bit installation guide for your laptop/PC

25 Rabiul Awal 1431H

Lets start with Linux OS, in a nutshell. Understand your options before formatting your laptop/PC. There are 2 types of installation to choose from:
  1. Total Linux.
    • Your OS is totally Linux. No Windows.
    • Ironically, with the help of a software called Wine, you can run Windows from within Linux, yet you don't have to install Windows. It's good if you want to run some Windows-based only program such as Free Download Manager, and Ragnarok Online. This is up to you whether to install.
  2. Partial Linux, partial Windows.
    • This is a dual boot system. You can choose to start-up your laptop/PC either in Linux, or Windows; but not both. For instance, if you're laptop is on and running Linux, to switch to Windows, you have to restart your laptop in Windows.

Before going any further, make sure to backup your data. Burn it to CD/DVD, transfer it to an external hard-disk or pendrive; which ever is suitable. Other things to backup: fonts, brushes, palettes.

Backup your bookmarks too! That's what i forgot to do. I forgot to save my FireFox bookmarks... until it was too late! *crying* What a lost!

Now, the guide. Take note: of the various distros, this guide is for total Ubuntu.

1. If your laptop/PC is already on, insert the Ubuntu CD** into the drive, as shown in Pic 1, then close the drive.

**See here, Get Ubuntu - Download, request a CD, or buy on CD/DVD, on how get a Ubuntu CD/DVD.

Pic 1 - Refer Step 1. Installing Ubuntu 9.10 32bit from CD.

2. Restart your laptop/PC.

3. POST screen. On the POST screen, depending on the laptop/PC model, press the “Del” or “F12” key. Some models use “F5” or “F8”. It's usually written on the bottom of the POST screen itself. Be quick to press. You've only got a few seconds before the system starts up. By then, you'll have restart your laptop/PC again.

4. Boot menu. After the pressing the proper key during the POST screen, a boot menu, as shown in Pic 2 appears. Select the option “CD/DVD”, then press “Enter”.

Pic 2 - Refer Step 4. Boot menu.

5. Language. As shown in Pic 3, select your installation language then press "Enter". Be sure to decide before the countdown timer on the left expires.

Pic 3 - Refer Step 5. Select your installation language. Note countdown timer on the left.

6. Ubuntu. As shown in Pic 4, select the option: Install Ubuntu. Then press “Enter”. Leave the laptop/PC to load the files.

Pic 4 - Refer Step 6. Select the option: Install Ubuntu.

7. Follow the step-by-step instructions. There are 6 steps.

7.i. Welcome. Step 1 of 6. Select your language to be used for the installation process. The selected language will also be the default language for the final system. Then click "Forward".

Pic 5 - Refer Step 7.i. Select language.

7.ii. Where are you? Step 2 of 6. Click your time zone to display the correct local time, also to get updates from sites closest to your location. See Pic 6. Then click "Forward".

Pic 6 - Refer Step 7.ii. Select your region for correct local time.

7.iii. Keyboard layout. Step 3 of 6. Select your keyboard layout, as shown in Pic 7. Then click "Forward".

Pic 7 - Refer Step 7.iii. Select keyboard layout.

7.iv. Prepare disk space. Step 4 of 6. Select the type of installation on your hard-disk. As shown in Pic 8, there are 4 options to choose from:
  • Install them side-by-side, choosing between them each startup
    • Remember the dual boot system explained earlier?
  • Erase and use entire disk
    • I went with this option.
  • Use the largest continuous space
Then click "Forward".

Pic 8 - Refer Step7.iv. Select installation type.

7.v. Prepare partitions. Step 5 of 7.

(a) As shown in Pic 9, select one partition to set it as the "root"; in terms of Windows, this will be C:/. Click "Change". On the pop-up window Edit a partition,
  • New partition size in megabytes (1000000 bytes): keep the number as it is or change it. I kept the numbers as it is.
  • Use as: Ext4 journaling file system
  • Format the partition: put a in tick the box
  • Mount point: from the drop-down menu, select "/"
Then click "OK".

Pic 9 - Refer Step 7.v(a). Set the root for Ubuntu.

(b) Select the next partition. Click "Change". On the pop-up window Edit a partition,
  • New partition size in megabytes (1000000 bytes): keep the number as it is or change it. I changed partition size from 37877 Mb to 35878 Mb.
  • Use as: Ext4 journaling file system
  • Format the partition: leave the the box empty
  • Mount point: leave the field blank

Then click "OK". On the pop-up window, as shown in Pic 10, click "Continue". A snapshot of the process is shown in Pic 11. We will format this partition after restarting the laptop/PC in Step 8.

Pic 10 - Refer Step 7.v(b). Preparing the other partition.

Pic 11 - Refer Step 7.v(b). Formatting.

(c) Select the "free space". Click "Change". In the pop-up window Create a new partition, as shown in Pic 12,
  • Type for the new partition: Logical
  • New partition size in megabytes (1000000 bytes): keep the number as it is or change it. I kept the numbers as it is.
  • Location for the new partition: Beginning
  • Use as: swap area
  • Mount point: leave the field blank
Then click "OK".

Pic 12 - Refer Step 7.v(c). Swap area. Who are you? Step 6 of 7. As shown in Pic 13, fill in the laptop/PC profile. Also,select 1 of the 3 log-in options
  • Log in automatically
    • Your laptop/PC is simply password-free. Boot-up and you're ready to go!
  • Require my password to log in
    • Similar to logging-in to Windows. Password is required once per log-in.
  • Require my password to log in and to decrypt my home folder
    • The most secure log-in compared to the other two options.
    • Slow at logging-in after booting-up or waking-up from hibernation.
    • Requires password when you access your other-than-the-system partition, and install software.
    • I went with this option.

Then click "Forward". If there are warnings, try avoiding spaces between names, or drop from upper- to lower-cases.

Pic 13 - Refer Step Setup laptop/PC profile.

7.vii. Ready to install. Step 7 of 7. Verify final installation setup before formatting. Then click "Install".

Pic 14 - Refer Step 7.vii. Final verification prior to formatting.

7.viii. Installing system. Let the process of formatting (Pic 15) and installation of the partition to take place (Pic 16).

Pic 15 - Refer Step 7.viii. Partition is formatted.

Pic 16 - Refer Step 7.viii. Partition is installed with Ubuntu.

8. Installation complete. After the process in Step 7.viii is complete, a pop-up as shown in Pic 17 notifies you to restart your laptop/PC. Remove the CD from the drive, otherwise the setup will start all over again. Then restart your laptop/PC.

Pic 17 - Refer Step 8. Restart your laptop/PC.

9. Log-in. On the log-in screen as shown in Pic 18, select your profile, fill-in your password, then click "Log-in". Your profile and password were set-up at Step

Pic 18 - Refer Step 9. Ubuntu log-in screen.

10. Mount. Your desktop will look similar to that shown in Pic 19. The horizontal bar on the top is referred to as "Panel".

On the panel, click "Places". On the drop-down menu, click "36 GB Filesystem" (whatever yours is named) as shown in Pic 20. If there's a warning like in Pic 21, fill-in your password, then click "Authenticate". This was set at Step

Pic 19 - Refer Step 10. Your Ubuntu desktop.

Pic 20 - Refer Step 10. Mounting the hard disk labelled "36 GB Filesystem".

Pic 21 - Refer Step 10. Authenticate.

11.  Format. On the desktop, a hard disk labelled "36 GB Filesystem" is mounted. Right-click the icon. On the menu, click "Format..." as shown in Pic 22.

On the pop-up window, as shown in Pic 23,
  • Type: Compatible with Linux (ext3)
  • Name: rename your hard disk. Renamed "New Volume" by default.
Then click "Format".

Pic 22 - Refer Step 11. Right-click icon if mounted device. Screenshot was taken afterwards.

Pic 23 - Refer Step 11. Final step. Select type. Screenshot was taken afterwards.

It's all done.

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

Ubuntu Newbie: Why I switched OS

Created: 24 Rabiulawal 1431H. [Ubuntu 9.10 Karmic Koala]
Published: 10th March 2010M, We.
Updated: 17th February 2013M / 18 Rabiulakhir 1434H, Mo.

Pic 1 - My current Ubuntu desktop. Waiting for GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) to load.

Monday, 8th March 2010: the turning point in my computing life. I'm crawling on a one-way highway from pirated Windows to Linux! Ubuntu to be precise. Files & folders from my robust 4-year old Toshiba Satellite M100 laptop are transferred to Abang's spacious PC via FileZilla.

Sorry for encouraging piracy. As a Muslim, I want to avoid products deriving from stolen goods/services. A stolen item IS a stolen item; no matter how much good you get out of it. Furthermore, when asked in the hereafter, what am I to answer?

The awareness matured overtime through many events. The decision itself to switch wasn't easy.  I'm giving up the undeserving privilege of using various software and games for the sake of going clean. What I see coming is major learning and adaptation to the new OS. Hence, this humble blog to note and share what I've learned.

My 1k stories are typed using MS Word. But this time is different. I'm writing straight into my blog, then editing it in Word Processor.

Read another article by a different blogger, here:
Barang Cetak Rompak & Fotocopy Buku



Pic 2 - The previous OS (operating system) before permanently switching to Ubuntu.

Pic 3 - My robust Toshiba Satellite M100 laptop. Also showing the Ubuntu installation CD (compact disc), version 9.10.

Pic 4 - Screenshot of Writer.